The answers have the right to probably just be uncovered through historical sources and also methods,
First, the answer to your 2nd question.
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The existing calendar that many of the western civilization uses is Gregorian Calendar1, i m sorry is an innovation over Julian Calendar, i m sorry itself to be an innovation over traditional Roman Calendar.
Now, on to the first question.
Generally months through 31 and also 30 job come in alternating fashion other than for July and August which room consecutive. Therefore why carry out they both have actually 31 days?
To answer this, we require to very first look right into the mslsec.com of roman inn Calendar. The first roman calendar attributed to legend Romulus had 10 months, and also it began from Martius, i.e. The month we call March. And that can still be watched in the modern calendar today. September, October, November, and also December room 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th months respectively, however Sept comes from Latin because that 7, Oct is because that 8, and so on.
After that, there were a couple of (minor) changes to the roman Calendar prior to the development of Julian Calendar. At that time, there were 12 months, with Iunarius and Februarius, new months added before Martius. And also yet, an simple year had 355 days, however, a tropical solar year, i.e. The period of Earth"s revolution around the Sun, is around 365.25 days. Therefore, before this time, Romans supplied to add a month referred to as Mensis Intercalaris that 27/28-days between Februarius and Martius to balance this. (the in-depth scheme deserve to be watched in the wikipedia short article on Julian Calendar).
To adjust this, the calendar was considerably overhauled under the power of Julius Caesar. One of the results of this reform to be Quintilis (Quint - 5; so now the 7th month), which already had 31 days, maintained 31 days; and Sextilis (Sex - 6; so now the 8th month), which earlier had 29 days, gained a rise of 2 days and also now had actually 31 days.If one is curious, the net readjust was January (Iunarius), Sextilis (August), and December obtained 2 days each, vice versa, Aprilis (April), Iunius (June), September, and also November got 1 work each.
Now for the name of this months. After the death of Julius Caesar, Quintilis to be renamed to Julius in his honor, i beg your pardon is the beginning of July. Similarly, Sextilis to be renamed to Augustus in the honor of climate reigning emperor Augustus.
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Interestingly, subsequent emperors Tiberius, Caligula, Domitian and also Commodus (unsuccessfully) tried come rename September ~ themselves, yet failed.
1 Technically, current calendar - the UTC is a further modification of Gregorian Calendar, since a Leap second is periodically added, to store the time of work close to average solar time. Yet for all valuable purposes, it"s not significantly different native Gregorian Calendar.