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Bar Magnet

The lines of magnetic field from a bar magnetform closed lines.By convention, thefield direction istaken to be outward from theNorth pole and into the South poleof the magnet. Permanent magnets can be made from ferromagnetic materials. As can be visualized with the magnetic field lines, the magnetic field is strongest inside the magnetic material. The strongest external magnetic fields are near the poles. A magnetic north pole will attract the south pole of another magnet, and repel a north pole.

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The magnetic field lines of a bar magnet can be traced out with the use of a compass. The needle of a compass is itself a permanent magnet and the north indicator of the compass is a magnetic north pole. The north pole of a magnet will tend to line up with the magnetic field, so a suspended compas needle will rotate until it lines up with the magnetic field. Unlike magnetic poles attract, so the north indicator of the compass will point toward the south pole of a magnet. In response to the Earth"s magnetic field, the compass will point toward the geographic North Pole of the Earth because it is in fact a magnetic south pole. The magnetic field lines of the Earth enter the Earth near the geographic North Pole.

Comparison of magnetic and electric fieldsCompare to solenoid magnetic field
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The electric field of a point charge is radially outward from a positive charge.

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The magnetic field of a bar magnet.
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Electric sources are inherently "monopole" or point charge sources.Magnetic sources are inherently dipole sources - you can"t isolate North or South "monopoles".
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Go BackBar Magnet and Solenoid

The magnetic field produced by electric current in a solenoid coil is similar to that of a bar magnet.

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The magnetic field lines can be thought of as a map representing the magnetic influence of the source object in the space surrounding it. The properties of the magnetic field lines are can be summarized by:The direction of the magnetic field is tangent to the magnetic field line at any point in space.The strength of the magnetic field is visualized by the closeness of the lines to each other. It is proportional to the number of lines per unit area perpendicular to the lines. a commonly used phrase is "magnetic flux density".Magnetic field lines never cross. The magnetic field at any point is unique.Magnetic field lines are continuous, forming closed loops without beginning or end.(List adapted from OpenStaxCollege discussion.)
Add iron core to solenoid
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Go BackIron Core Solenoid An iron corehas theeffect of multiplying greatly the magnetic field ofa solenoid compared to the air core solenoid on the left.

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Properties of iron core solenoid
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Electromagnet

Electromagnets are usually in the form of iron core solenoids. The ferromagnetic property of the iron core causes the internal magnetic domains of the iron to line up with the smaller driving magnetic field produced by the current in the solenoid. The effect is the multiplication of the magnetic field by factors of tens to even thousands.

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The solenoid field relationship is

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and k is the relative permeability of the iron, shows the magnifying effect of the iron core.

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